The UK Shortage Occupation list is a list of occupations in the UK that are currently experiencing shortages of skilled workers. It is used by the UK Home Office to determine which occupations should be given priority under the UK Points-Based Immigration System. The list is updated periodically and is a key tool used to ensure employers have access to the skills they need to remain competitive and to support economic growth. In this blog post, we will discuss what the UK Shortage Occupation list is, how it works, and why it is important.

The MAC uses data from the Labour Force Survey, official job vacancy statistics and other sources to determine which occupations are facing a shortage in the UK. The MAC also provides research to inform policy makers of the economic impact of immigration. This is done to ensure that any changes to immigration policy will not lead to economic difficulties.

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The UK Shortage Occupation list allows employers to quickly access skilled workers from outside the EU, in positions where there is a shortage of domestic labour. This can help businesses fill positions quickly and efficiently, helping them remain competitive in their sector. The SOL also offers an opportunity for non-EU nationals to work in the UK in positions where they may have been previously overlooked due to their foreign status.

 

The Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) and its role in the UK Shortage Occupation list

The Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) is an independent public body responsible for advising the UK government on matters related to immigration and the labour market. It has been around since 2008 and produces reports which provide evidence-based policy advice to the government on a range of topics.

One of the main tasks of the MAC is to assess the occupations in the UK which are considered to be in shortage and therefore require skilled workers from outside the UK. The MAC produces regular reports with recommendations on the occupations which should be included on the UK Shortage Occupation list. This list is used by employers and recruiters in order to identify job roles which need to be filled with foreign talent due to a lack of qualified domestic applicants.

The list is updated annually, based on the evidence presented in the MAC’s reports. These reports look at the current labour market conditions and make recommendations for changes to the list. The MAC’s reports also include information about how immigration can help to fill shortages of skills and occupations, as well as its economic impacts. The MAC’s reports are an important source of information for employers, recruiters, and job seekers alike, as they provide an up-to-date picture of the current state of the labour market in the UK.

For job seekers, being aware of the occupations currently included on the list can be beneficial as these occupations may provide a faster route to obtaining a UK visa and gaining employment. For employers, having an understanding of the list can help them identify roles that are eligible for priority processing when applying for a work visa.

How can an employer influence the shortage occupation list recommendations by the Migration Advisory committee?

Employers can influence the recommendations made by the MAC through the following ways:

  1. Submitting evidence: Employers can provide the MAC with evidence of the skills shortages they are experiencing in certain occupations, including data on recruitment difficulties, turnover rates, and the impact of the shortages on their business.
  2. Participating in consultations: The MAC regularly consults with employers and other stakeholders to gather their views on migration and the SOL. Employers can participate in these consultations to provide their perspective on which occupations should be included on the SOL.
  3. Representation of industry organizations: Employers can participate in discussions with industry organizations, such as the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) and the Federation of Small Businesses (FSB), which may make submissions and representations to the MAC on behalf of the employer.
  4. Nominating representatives to be members of the Migration Advisory Committee: The MAC is made up of experts in different fields and are appointed by the government, Some positions are appointed after consultation with interest groups such as the ones mentioned previously.
  5. Supporting research and making case to the government: Employers can also support academic research on migration and the SOL and use it to make a case to government officials and members of Parliament to include certain occupations on the SOL

It is worth noting that the MAC’s recommendations are advisory and ultimately it is up to the UK Government to decide which occupations to include on the SOL and how the SOL is used in immigration policy

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How are occupations added to the list?

The process for adding occupations to the UK Shortage Occupation list is managed by the Migration Advisory Committee (MAC). It assesses the evidence submitted by employers and other stakeholders and makes recommendations for which occupations should be included.

To determine which occupations are on the list, MAC considers factors including vacancy levels, salaries, growth in demand, and any evidence of labour shortages in specific occupations. This ensures that the occupations that appear on the list reflect the current needs of the labour market.

To be eligible for consideration, an occupation must first meet specific criteria. This includes evidence of a genuine shortage of skilled labour, an expected growth in the occupation’s importance and a need to attract workers from outside of the UK to fill the vacancies.

The MAC will then review this evidence and make a recommendation to the government. If the government approves the recommendation, the occupation will be added to the list. Occupations may also be removed from the list if they no longer meet the criteria or if there is a change in the labour market.

It is important to note that there is no guaranteed timeframe for this process. Decisions on additions and removals can take some time and are subject to changes in legislation, politics and other factors.

 

Current occupations on the list

Table 1: Shortage occupations where applicants for entry clearance or permission to stay may be paid 80% of the going rate for the occupation code:

Occupation code Job types included on the shortage occupations list Areas of the UK where there is a shortage Annual salary (80% of going rate)
1181 Health services and public health managers and directors – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £30,720 (£15.15 per hour)
1242 Residential, day and domiciliary care managers and proprietors – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £21,360 (£10.53 per hour)
2111 Chemical scientists – only jobs in the nuclear industry Scotland only 80% of going rate: £21,360 (£10.53 per hour)
2112 Biological scientists and biochemists – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £23,760 (£11.72 per hour)
2113 Physical scientists – only the following jobs in the construction-related ground engineering industry:
engineering geologist
hydrogeologist
geophysicist
England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £29,200 (£14.40 per hour)
2113 Physical scientists – only the following jobs in the oil and gas industry:
geophysicist
geoscientist
geologist
geochemist
technical services manager in the decommissioning and waste areas of the nuclear industry
senior resource geologist and staff geologist in the mining sector
England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £29,200 (£14.40 per hour)
2114 Social and humanities scientists – only archaeologists England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £20,720 (£10.22 per hour)
2121 Civil engineers – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £28,000 (£13.81 per hour)
2122 Mechanical engineers – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £26,720 (£13.18 per hour)
2123 Electrical engineers – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £29,600 (£14.60 per hour)
2124 Electronics engineers – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £27,760 (£13.69 per hour)
2126 Design and development engineers – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £27,280 (£13.45 per hour)
2127 Production and process engineers – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £26,480 (£13.06 per hour)
2129 Engineering professionals not elsewhere classified – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £26,160 (£12.90 per hour)
2135 IT business analysts, architects and systems designers – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £29,280 (£14.44 per hour)
2136 Programmers and software development professionals – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £26,640 (£13.14 per hour)
2137 Web design and development professionals – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £20,800 (£10.26 per hour)
2139 Information technology and communications professionals not elsewhere classified – only cyber security specialists England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £25,440 (£12.54 per hour)
2216 Veterinarians – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £26,000 (£12.82 per hour)
2425 Actuaries, economists and statisticians – only bio-informaticians and informaticians England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £26,240 (£12.94 per hour)
2431 Architects – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £28,000 (£13.81 per hour)
2461 Quality control and planning engineers – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £24,400 (£12.03 per hour)
3111 Laboratory technicians – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £14,560 (£7.18 per hour)
3411 Artists – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £16,800 (£8.28 per hour)
3414 Dancers and choreographers – only skilled classical ballet dancers or skilled contemporary dancers who meet the standard required by internationally recognised UK ballet or contemporary dance companies.
The company must be endorsed as being internationally recognised by a UK industry body such as the Arts Councils (of England, Scotland or Wales).
England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £23,840 (£11.76 per hour)
3415 Musicians – only skilled orchestral musicians who are leaders, principals, sub-principals or numbered string positions, and who meet the standard required by internationally recognised UK orchestras.
The orchestra must a full member of the Association of British Orchestras.
England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £22,000 (£10.85 per hour)
3416 Arts officers, producers and directors – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £24,000 (£11.83 per hour)
3421 Graphic designers – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £18,800 (£9.27 per hour)
5215 Welding trades – only high integrity pipe welders, where the job requires 3 or more years’ related on-the-job experience. This experience must not have been gained through illegal working. England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £18,240 (£8.99 per hour)
6145 Care workers and home carers – private households or individuals (other than sole traders sponsoring someone to work for their business) cannot sponsor Skilled Worker applicants England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland No going rate – the salary must be at least £20,480 per year or £10.10 per hour
6146 Senior care workers – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland 80% of going rate: £13,520 (£6.67 per hour)

 

Table 2: Shortage occupations in eligible health and education occupation codes where going rates are based on national pay scales:

Occupation code Job types included on the shortage occupations list Areas of the UK where there is a shortage
2211 Medical practitioners – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland
2212 Psychologists – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland
2213 Pharmacists – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland
2217 Medical radiographers – all jobs (including radiotherapy practitioners / technologists) England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland
2219 Health professionals not elsewhere classified – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland
2221 Physiotherapists – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland
2222 Occupational therapists – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland
2223 Speech and language therapists – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland
2231 Nurses – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland
2314 Secondary education teaching professionals – only teachers in maths, physics, science (where an element of physics will be taught), computer science and modern foreign languages England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland
2314 Secondary education teaching professionals – only teachers in Gaelic Scotland only
2315 Primary and nursery education teaching professionals – only Gaelic medium teachers Scotland only
2442 Social workers – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland
3213 Paramedics – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland
6141 Nursing auxiliaries and assistants – all jobs England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland

 

Eligibility for the list

In order to be eligible for the UK Shortage Occupation list, certain criteria must be met. The Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) reviews the list regularly and makes decisions based on research and evidence as to which occupations should be added or removed from the list. Occupations must have an identifiable shortage of workers in the UK, with a lack of skilled labor being readily available for the job, in order for it to qualify for the list.

The UK government also considers how long it would take to fill the vacancy, the salary offered, and any other relevant information in determining if an occupation should be included on the list. In some cases, specific skills or qualifications may be needed to meet the criteria for inclusion on the list. Priority is usually given to those jobs that are seen as having a high level of economic benefit to the UK.

In addition, job seekers applying for positions on the list may be required to demonstrate they are highly skilled in their field and that they meet the minimum salary requirements set out by the government. This means that employers are able to recruit individuals from abroad more quickly and easily than those who are not on the list.

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Finally, employers wishing to hire someone from abroad must show that they have tried to fill the vacancy locally first before considering international applicants. This is in line with UK immigration policies, ensuring that only highly skilled individuals are being employed and that UK citizens are not being overlooked for potential positions.

Criteria for inclusion on the list

The Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) is responsible for determining which occupations are included on the UK Shortage Occupation list. To be included, an occupation must meet the following criteria:

  1. The occupation must be in an area where there is a significant shortage of workers in the UK, meaning that the number of people applying for jobs in the sector is not enough to meet demand.
  2. The occupation must be in a highly skilled sector where wages are typically higher than the national median wage.
  3. The occupation must be on a shortage occupation list published by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy or one of its sub-organisations.
  4. The occupation must be suitable for workers from outside of the European Economic Area.
  5. There must be evidence of good job prospects within the occupation.

These criteria help ensure that occupations on the list are those where there is genuine demand and that foreign workers can play a key role in helping to fill those vacancies.

Benefits of being on the list

Being on the UK Shortage Occupation List (SOL) has many advantages for employers and job seekers alike. Employers may benefit from a faster processing of visa applications and priority for work visas when trying to recruit qualified individuals from overseas. For job seekers, being on the SOL can mean having access to a wider range of opportunities than would otherwise be available to them.

The SOL also provides an additional benefit to employers in the form of reduced costs associated with hiring a foreign national. With the right occupation code and job type, employers may be eligible for a lower salary requirement than other occupations which are not included in the list. This can be advantageous in areas where the cost of living is higher than the average across the country.

Finally, the SOL allows employers to fill any gaps in their workforce more quickly than usual. With fewer requirements to show a shortage, it’s easier for employers to hire someone for any occupation on the list. This can provide employers with a more reliable workforce and reduce recruitment time, making it easier to meet their business needs.

Priority for work visas

One of the biggest benefits of being on the UK Shortage Occupation list is that it can give you priority when applying for a work visa. This is especially beneficial for employers looking to fill a vacancy quickly with the right person for the job. By employing someone on the list, employers can bypass the time-consuming resident labour market test and are given priority when processing applications. This can speed up the process considerably, which is advantageous for both employers and job seekers.

However, it’s important to note that even if an occupation is on the list, this does not guarantee that a job seeker will automatically be granted a work visa. As with all visa applications, individuals must still meet all of the other visa requirements. The job must also meet the minimum annual salary requirement of £25,600, unless an exemption applies. If a job seeker meets these criteria, then they will be given priority when applying for their visa.

Potential for faster processing of visa applications

For those applying for a job on the UK Shortage Occupation list, there is the potential for a faster visa application processing time. This is because these occupations are considered to be in demand and therefore priority will be given to applications made for these roles.

In some cases, employers can submit a sponsor license application for a visa applicant before the job has even been offered or accepted. This means that the visa application can be processed quicker than other applications.

The UK Visas & Immigration (UKVI) has also streamlined the process of applying for a work visa. They have created an online application system to make it easier for employers to sponsor and manage migrant workers. The system allows employers to track the progress of their employee’s visa applications and provides guidance on which jobs are suitable for sponsorship.

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In addition, employers who are sponsoring an employee on the UK Shortage Occupation list can benefit from priority processing of their visa applications. This means that the applications are assessed within 15 days, compared to the usual 6-8 weeks processing time. This helps to ensure that businesses can fill vacancies quickly and efficiently with skilled foreign workers.

Relevance for job seekers and employers

The UK Shortage Occupation list provides great relevance for both job seekers and employers. Job seekers who are looking to work in the UK can use the list to find occupations that are in demand and have a priority when it comes to obtaining a visa. Employers are also able to benefit from the list as they can recruit workers for positions that are in high demand without needing to advertise or conduct a labour market test. It is important to note, however, that there are certain eligibility criteria that must be met in order to gain access to the list, such as having an appropriate qualification or experience in the specified field. The list is regularly reviewed and updated in order to ensure that only occupations with genuine shortages are included, so it is important to keep an eye on any changes that may occur.

How to take advantage of the opportunity

The UK Shortage Occupation list is a great opportunity for employers and job seekers alike. Employers can use the list to find skilled and qualified workers who are eligible for faster processing of visas. Job seekers can benefit from the list by finding roles that may otherwise be hard to come by in the UK.

The best way to take advantage of this opportunity is to research which occupations are currently on the list and then identify the specific skills and qualifications needed for the role. Employers should then look for potential candidates who have the right qualifications, experience, and expertise. Once an employer finds a suitable candidate, they should get in contact with the candidate and provide them with all necessary information to apply for a visa.

Job seekers should also research the list to determine which occupations they may be eligible for. They can then search for jobs that match their qualifications, experience, and expertise. Additionally, they should make sure they meet all of the criteria set out by the UKVI before applying for a job.

Overall, the UK Shortage Occupation list provides employers and job seekers with an excellent opportunity to take advantage of the UK’s labour market. By doing their research and ensuring they meet all criteria, employers and job seekers can find success in a competitive labour market.

Applying for a job on the list

If you are looking to take advantage of the UK Shortage Occupation list, there are a few things you need to consider before applying for a job. Firstly, the position must be included on the list, and the job title should match the occupation code associated with it. Secondly, the annual salary requirements for a job on the list must be met. The minimum salary for an occupation on the list is £25,600. Any job offering less than this amount will not be considered for the list. Finally, you will also need to consider the areas of the UK experiencing shortages. Generally, these areas tend to be in the North East and South West of England.

Once you have identified an eligible job on the list, you can then apply for it as normal. You should include a cover letter outlining your experience and skills, as well as any qualifications or other relevant documents. It is important to demonstrate your suitability for the role to increase your chances of success.

If you are successful in your application and you are offered the job, it is important to remember that you are not guaranteed a visa simply because you have been offered a job on the list. You must still meet all other eligibility criteria for a work visa and follow the appropriate application process. It is important to note that employers will also be required to follow certain processes if they are hiring someone from outside the EU/EEA..

Areas of the UK experiencing shortages

The UK is experiencing a shortage of workers in certain occupations and certain areas of the country. The shortages are most acute in certain sectors such as the NHS, construction and hospitality, with the south-east of England being particularly affected.

The UK’s ageing population has also led to a shortage of workers in some areas, including Scotland and Northern Ireland, where there is a higher proportion of retirees. With the number of migrants from Europe declining, the UK is also facing shortages of professionals in industries such as engineering, technology and finance.

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Due to the nature of these occupations, employers in the UK may struggle to fill vacant positions, leading to difficulties in recruiting suitable staff. Shortage occupations are often highly skilled and specialised, so it can be difficult for employers to find the right person for the job. This is why the UK has introduced the Shortage Occupation List – to identify areas of work where the UK is facing a real and persistent skills shortage.

Annual salary requirements

The UK Shortage Occupation List includes occupations with salaries of £20,800 or more per year. This salary requirement is set in order to ensure that employers are not abusing the system by recruiting overseas workers at lower wages. In some cases, a higher salary may be required if the job is deemed to be more skilled or highly specialised.

To be eligible for inclusion on the list, a job must offer at least the median wage in that occupation and the salary must reflect the job market rate in that region. This helps to ensure that employers are not exploiting foreign workers or offering wages that undercut local workers.

In addition, the UK Shortage Occupation List also requires that employers pay the national minimum wage, which is currently £8.91 per hour for those aged over 25. This helps to ensure that foreign workers are paid fairly for their labour and that employers do not take advantage of them by undercutting local wages.

Changes to the list and controversy

The UK Shortage Occupation List is updated annually to reflect changing economic needs. In October 2020, the Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) recommended a number of changes to the list, which included the addition of more care jobs and the removal of the requirement for employers to show a shortage in order to employ someone in any occupation.

The MAC’s decision was met with both criticism and praise. Some welcomed the move as an acknowledgement of the essential work performed by care workers in the UK. Others, however, argued that it could lead to exploitation of workers and a further destabilization of the labour market. The decision was also criticized for overlooking the impact of Brexit on labour supply.

Despite these criticisms, the MAC defended its position, saying that the list was intended to meet changing economic needs and ensure the availability of the right people with the right skills. The MAC added that they took into consideration potential exploitation and displacement of workers when making their decisions.

It is clear that changes to the UK Shortage Occupation List are controversial, but also necessary in order to reflect changing economic needs. As the labour market continues to evolve, so too will the list and its impact on employers, job seekers and communities alike.

Addition of more care jobs to the list

In March 2021, the UK government announced plans to add more care jobs to the UK Shortage Occupation list, in an effort to address the country’s growing care workforce crisis.

The move came following a review of the list by the Migration Advisory Committee (MAC), which was appointed by the government to assess whether a job should be added to the list.

The MAC recommended that the roles of care workers, senior care workers and care home managers should all be added to the list, due to the lack of suitable candidates available in the UK. It is hoped that adding these roles to the list will encourage more skilled workers from abroad to enter the sector and fill the vacancies.

Under the new rules, employers recruiting foreign care workers will be able to do so without having to prove that there is a shortage of suitable applicants. This is intended to make it easier for them to recruit from outside the UK, allowing them to address staffing shortages in their organisation.

By including these roles on the UK Shortage Occupation list, it is hoped that more people from abroad will be encouraged to join the care sector in the UK. The move could potentially help address some of the issues that the care sector has been facing with regards to recruitment and retention of staff.

Controversies and criticisms of the list’s methodology and impact

The UK Shortage Occupation list has been subject to various controversies and criticisms, largely surrounding the methodology used to determine which occupations are included on the list.

The Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) is responsible for evaluating the evidence and making recommendations on what occupations should be added or removed from the list. Critics of the MAC argue that they are overly biased in favour of employers and don’t take into account other important factors such as the impact on wages and employment opportunities for local workers.

In addition, some critics have argued that there is a lack of transparency around the MAC’s decisions and the data used to inform them, meaning it is difficult to accurately assess the impact of the list on the labour market.

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Furthermore, it has been argued that the list does not go far enough in addressing certain skills shortages in certain sectors, particularly those facing a high degree of automation and technological advancement. This could mean that employers are unable to access the skilled labour they need to stay competitive in the global economy.

Ultimately, the controversies surrounding the UK Shortage Occupation list highlight the need for greater transparency and accountability when it comes to determining which occupations should be included on the list. It is also important that employers and workers alike understand the implications of the list so that they can make informed decisions about their employment opportunities.

Conclusion

The UK’s shortage occupation list, determined by the Migration Advisory Committee, plays a vital role in the process of granting a skilled worker visa, as only the following jobs that are on the list are eligible for the skilled worker visa. The education and occupation codes for each job must meet certain standards and the skilled worker applicants must pass the UK qualifications, language and life test to be considered.

UK employers who are looking to recruit foreign workers can sponsor skilled worker applicants, and sponsor overseas workers as long as the job is on the list of shortage occupations and there are no qualified or suitable settled workers in the UK to fill that role. Additionally, the sponsor must have valid sponsor license to be able to employ foreign workers.

It is worth noting that the shortage occupations list is not static, and it is continually reviewed and updated based on the labour market needs, which means certain jobs can be added or removed from the list. This is particularly relevant in the current scenario as the COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant changes in the labour market, a significant example of this is that more care jobs like home carers have now been added to the list, to reflect the needs of the society.

The skilled worker visa also provides a pathway to permanent residency for overseas workers after five years of living and working in the UK, which is a significant incentive for highly skilled individuals to choose the UK as their destination.

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